What is the difference between synthetic biology, biotechnology and biochemistry?

The exact difference between Synthetic Biology and Biotechnology is this: The Synthetic Biologist tries to make an artificial biologic element (enzyme, piece of DNA etc.) in his lab. Whereas the Biotechnologist tries to isolate the biologic element in its natural form without modifying it. The Biotechnologist does not intervene with nature. If he does then he becomes a Synthetic Biologist.

Biochemistry on the other hand side associates with Molecular Biology. What differentiates the two Scientists is basically the perspective that see things. The Biochemist is interested mostly in Chemical Reactions, while the Molecular Biologist sees matters more theoretically from the perspective of life and organism. The line that divides both disciplines is not clear though and all matters on Philosophy. Molecular Biology as a discipline that was created as a reaction of several Scientists upon an older common view of Biochemists that the cell was merely a sack with enzymes. Biologists wanted to go…

How do plants get overwatered?

It breaks down into two issues: too much water; and, inadequate drainage. Either or both may happen when too much water is given to plants. It is most applicable to plants in pots, but can also occur with plants in the ground.

When you water you are doing a couple of things. You are supplying needed moisture to the root system so it can provide that moisture to the stems and leaves. You are also flushing out some minerals and waste products from metabolic processes occurring in the roots and in the soil. If your potted plants have a drip tray under them and you leave water in the tray, the waste products have nowhere to go except back in to the soil where they become more concentrated. This can lead to soil that is toxic to the roots. Remember that potted plants are in an essentially closed system—unless you flush out the accumulated salts and waste products periodically. The minerals in your water supply will accumulate, possibly to the point of burning the tips of the roots which is …

What are the steps for plant tissue culture?

Basic steps involved in plant tissue culture:
Preparation of suitable nutrient medium: MS medium, White’s medium, B5 medium are few culture media. Auxins, cytokines and Gibberellins are the most commonly used growth hormones in culture medium prepared for tissue culture.

Agar: It solidifies the medium and acts as a substratum. It doesn’t have any nutritive importance. It is obtained from sea weeds and is used to provide solid surface for growth. All these important nutrients are incorporated in the culture medium and transferred into suitable containers and then sterilized.

Selection of explant: Explants are any excised part of the plant to be used in tissue culture like axillary buds, leaf and stem segments, root tip, shoot tip, anther, ovary and endosperm. Always young and healthy parts of plants are selected as explants.

Sterilization of the explant: Explants are sterilized by using different types of disinfectants like sodium hypochlorite (2%), silver nitrate (1%) calcium hypochlorite (9-1…

Do pesticides affect plant growth? If so, why?

If there were insects destroying your plant and you used an insecticide, it would improve the growth and health of your plant. If a fungus was destroying your plant and you used a fungicide that would also improve the growth of your plant. And if you used an herbicide on your plant, it would die, so that would also affect its growth.

Pesticide is a general term that includes insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. Anything that kills any “pest” organism is a pesticide. So pesticides would also include anything with an extreme pH, such as salt, vinegar, wood ash, boric acid and for that matter hot water.

What is biomedical science about? What do biomedical scientists do?

Biomedical Science is a basic research field which focuses on the aspects of the human body and human health. So you study everything about the human body and about disease progression and treatment. It is a new field in India, but abroad the scope of this field is vast, especially in the UK. The UK has a 'Royal Society of Biomedical Scientists' which has laid down the work profile of a Biomedical Scientist as well. Biomedical Scientists work in a health centre, either a hospital or health research facilities. They do epidemiological analysis of current human diseases and do the necessary research work, or are involved in policy making for combating diseases and it's treatment. In a hospital setting, they are required to assist doctors by telling them about the new treatment methods for a disease and suggest preventive measures as well.

What are the recent breakthrough in bio-science?

Primate Cloning: Though cloning is a debatable issue from the ethical point of view, it is quite necessary to study biological phenomena.

Primates, i.e. the family of apes (which include human beings too) have a very complex genome (genome is the total genetic information contained in a cell of the organism). Hence cloning primates is very difficult. However a group of scientists at Institute of Neuroscience, Shanghai, led by Mu-Ming Poo and Qiang Sun have successfully cloned two healthy monkeys of the variety Long Tailed Macaques named Zhongh and Huahua using the same principles used behind the cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1996. This is a first of its kind successful experiment.

The monkeys cloned will be studied respectively to conduct successful research work on human diseases in the near future, especially to study neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, etc. As humans belong to the same group as monkeys, i.e. Primata, and their genome is quite …

What is a good starter plant and advice for a newbie who wants a little more flora in their life?

Crassula ovata. The jade plant. It is a fun little plant that does best with a lot of sunlight and the occasional watering. It will even put out flowers under the right conditions. I have a few jade plants that have been with me 15ish years. Additionally, they are extremely easy to propagate. Just pull off a leaf or cut a stem and put it on dry soil. In a few weeks you might see the start of a new plant. A few pointers: 1. Don’t water too often, but water thoroughly. I usually water mine about once a week because they are in shallow pots. If they were in a normal flower pot I might cut this down to once every two or three weeks. 2. Don't be afraid to prune. They will actually grow much faster with occasional pruning and weak fertilizer. 3. Pay attention to it. This sounds simple, but if it isn't doing well, catch it early. Try moving it to a spot with different lighting or away from a vent.

While there are easier plants you could get, I still have fun with mine after all this t…