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What are the different types of bioreactors?

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To first understand what a biological reactor might be, I might first need to make you understand what biological materials are. And you will understand why that is in just a short while. So read the whole thing if you want to get a good grip on what you are searching for. Now a biological reactor or a bioreactor as you might call it, is merely a vessel that can support and contain biological materials or biological materials. And now you know I said that to understand bioreactors you might first need to understand what biological materials are. Here’s the short version to biological materials, they are merely composites that are made up of either whole or a part of a living organism, any living organism. Living organism may include tissues, biomass, body fluids, cellular component and the list will go on. Basically any living things that moves and breathes. And yes that’s it. See I wasn’t lying when I said it is going to be a short version. Now coming back to bioreactors, they are mer…

Can a virus or bacteria kill off a whole species of plants?

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In Britain a few years ago, the species of tree called the Elm tree suffered attack by a bacterial species which caused the disease known as 'Dutch elm disease'.
The trees gradually died and it was thought there were no more left alive, but some live trees of the species were found to have survived and there were also uninfected trees in another country.
The same thing happened in Britain at the time of the disease called the plague (around the 1600s) when many died from this disease. Everyone was in danger, but eventually the disease died down and in modern times it is almost unknown. It is a paradox that such bacteria (or even parasitic plants) seem to kill off their food source, or their host, so it seems that if the host to parasites is small in number they could be wiped out, together with the parasite and a bacterial species could wipe out their victim species if there were already very few left.

What is an ochratoxin?

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Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species (mainly A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, but also by 33% of A. Niger industrial strains) and some Penicillium species, especially P. verrucosum. Ochratoxin A is the most prevalent and relevant fungal toxin of this group, while ochratoxins B and C are of lesser importance.
Ochratoxin A is known to occur in commodities such as cereals, coffee, dried fruit, and red wine. It is possibly a human carcinogen and is of special interest as it can be accumulated in the meat of animals. Thus, meat and meat products can be contaminated with this toxin. Exposure to ochratoxins through diet can cause acute toxicity in mammalian kidneys. It has been suggested that carriers of alleles associated with phenylketonuria may have been protected from spontaneous abortion caused by ochratoxin exposure, providing a heterozygous advantage for the alleles despite the possibility of severe mental retardation in the rarer instance of inheri…

How is the life of a biotech researcher?

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That depends on your job, education, and sadly the most important of all connections. Life is great in biotech research if you have the right connections. Just networking won’t do. You need to be liked, trusted, and brilliant WITH experience. If you lack one of those things in a niche such as this, you’re facing an uphill battle. On a daily basis you need to be able to schedule your time from the moment you arrive until the moment you leave, leaving room for fixing routine failures of yours AND others. How advanced the technology you are working with is will determine what your schedule needs to account for and how long you need to consider certain things as factors.
To account for all of these factors, one essentially needs to be overqualified for the job they are doing. This is not one of those fields where you are hired to fill a position of in which you aren’t completely confident. Biotech is big money, so they don’t let you “fake it until you make it,” as is the case in so many profe…

How is biotechnology harmful for genetically modified crops on the environment?

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Crops do not damage the environment simply because they are GM. Some farming practices, such as the overuse of herbicides resulting in the excessive eradication of wild plants from farmland have been shown to harm the environment. These problems are similar for non-GM and GM crops. In a large farm scale evaluation of herbicide tolerant GM crops conducted in the UK between 1999 and 2006 it was shown that when weed control is particularly effective insect biodiversity is reduced. It did not matter whether or not the crop was GM- the important factor was how many weeds remained in the crop. Damage to wildlife can be reduced if a small amount of agricultural land is set aside for biodiversity.
A related issue is the growing problem of weeds becoming resistant to herbicides, due to the overuse of those herbicides. Herbicide tolerant crops, whether GM or non-GM, can cause this problem because repeated growth of the same herbicide tolerant crop involves repeated use of the same herbicide. One …

What is industrial biotechnology?

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Biotechnology is a promising field which utilizes organic procedures for the life sciences industry. It controls hereditary qualities of microorganisms and endeavors biomolecular and cell procedures to deliver basic things like hormones, anti-infection agents and numerous others. Critical zones of biotechnology incorporate biosimilars, natural item application, and numerous others. Modern biotechnology is a standout amongst the most encouraging new ways to deal with contamination anticipation, asset protection, and cost decrease. It is frequently alluded to as the third wave in biotechnology. In the event that created to its maximum capacity, mechanical biotechnology may largely affect the world than medicinal services and agrarian biotechnology, It offers organizations an approach to lessen costs and make new markets while ensuring the earth. Likewise, since a significant number of its items don't require the extensive audit times that medication items must experience, it's a …

What is the structure of lac operon?

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Structure of the lac operon The lac operon contains three genes: lacZlacY, and lacA. These genes are transcribed as a single mRNA, under control of one promoter. Genes in the lac operon specify proteins that help the cell utilize lactose. lacZencodes an enzyme that splits lactose into monosaccharides (single-unit sugars) that can be fed into glycolysis. Similarly, lacY encodes a membrane-embedded transporter that helps bring lactose into the cell. In addition to the three genes, the lac operon also contains a number of regulatory DNA sequences. These are regions of DNA to which particular regulatory proteins can bind, controlling transcription of the operon. Structure of the lac operon. The DNA of the lac operon contains (in order from left to right): CAP binding site, promoter (RNA polymerase binding site), operator (which overlaps with promoter), lacZ gene, lacY gene, and lacA gene. The activator protein CAP, when bound to a molecule called cAMP (discussed later), binds to the CAP bin…